Monthly Archives: September 2011

Critical Review Parallel Connections 2011


—–Motivation and Influences—————————


Parallel Connections


Introduction vs. Background

When my interest in Fine Arts began, I was trained as a visual artist with an emphasis in video and photography. Later on, and as a natural evolutionary process, I found myself working with elements that were related to the field that has been called “New Media”. Working on these theories and conceptual arenas, I discovered concepts, authors and artists that strongly influenced my practice.

From all the broad spectrum of ideas and analytical debates about Contemporary Art, I chose to do some research about “post-human” trends. This is a field that conveys interdisciplinary activities where Science, Art and Philosophy converge. This concept has many subdivisions -but mainly- I am particularly interested in trends such as Cybernetic Art, which is propelled by the ideas of Donna Haraway and her “Cyborg Manifesto”, the “New Flesh” vividly recreated in David Cronnenberg’s filmography and the “Abject Body” exposed by Julia Kristeva.

On the bases of these arenas is where I have incubated my own project in terms of production and creativity. What I have found in this discipline has helped me to develop a concern that is vital to me: The possibility of changing our human relation with the environment. Taking into consideration that the boundaries between natural and artificial have been blurred, (due to the access to technologies that offer a seamless integration and interaction between the human body and its non-organic extensions), I find myself interested in the widely spread trend has been noticeable especially during the last three decades.

This post-human philosophy has become part of my life. I feel that every artist somehow co-relates their personal experiences through the execution of artworks.  When I was a child, my health issues gave me a lot of trouble. I spent many hours in hospitals. I was taught at home that this isolated condition offered me many chances. As a result I gained interest in science-fiction books and novels, and in these kinds of stories reaffirmed to me the concept that the reconfiguration of the body was a fascinating idea, which somehow impregnated thoughts in my mind.

The integration of the body with another external and artificial part was an idea, which started to become a priority to me, considering that someone’s health condition might make him or her weaker than the majority. I remembered one of the first films that had a huge impact on me: Scanners (1981) by David Cronenberg[1]. In his films, Cronenberg explores people’s fears of bodily transformation and infection.

This fear to accept the transformation of the body is one of the first elements that I have incorporated as a discourse in my practice; these sorts of processes that can generate an uncanny vision of the human behaviour; they have made me re-think my interaction with the world and other artists’ works. Personally, I think that an idea can be implanted just as a virus. It can be transferred without physical contact; consequently, it might modify the corporeal and intellectual body of his carrier.

In this order of ideas I started looking for a conceptual ally. The affinity could offer me a better ground to perform intellectually, -then I found the second element, that has influenced my production which is the “Cyborg Manifesto” written by Donna Haraway where she states:

“We are all chimeras, -theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs.”[2]

Haraway uses the metaphor of the cyborg to expose ideas that have been considered natural, -like the human body. Our bodies -besides being a conglomerate of cells- also are constructed by our ideas about them. This has a particular relevance to my project, as in the conceptual landscape I will be discussing alongside this text how the body has been treated in ways that reduce its boundaries to a single pattern.

The third element I have brought into my project is Post-Structuralism[3] as a major part of contemporary philosophy. The analysis of these thinkers’ ideas has contributed in my research to the expansion and the understanding of the implications of this new generation of technological advances, and its relationship with the contemporary human condition.

“This movement is difficult to summarize, but may be broadly understood as a body of distinct responses to structuralism. The precise nature of the revision or critique of structuralism differs with each post-structuralist author, though common themes include the rejection of the self-sufficiency of the structures that structuralism posts and an interrogation of the binary oppositions that constitute those structures. Writers whose work is often characterized as post-structuralist include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Judith Butler and Julia Kristeva.” [4]

As I already mentioned, I have been working as an artist but in the last four years I shifted into curating as an extension of my practice, I have found in the curating practice the instruments to visualize and recreate the themes I am interested in (post-human trends and the influences I have referenced bellow).

Julia Kristeva’s studies about abjection have provided me with the necessary ground to set off my journey into my curatorial project.  In the process of doing my MA I have taken up other aspects of this post-human concept. I have chosen the abject body because it is a delicate and sometimes burning issue that might generate turmoil and controversial perception. However, that characteristic makes it even more challenging and exciting for me, as it will help me find new relations and interpretations of the idea. According to my research and readings, I feel that curating is an exercise of providing new meanings through the theories and the creativity of others. What I intend to do with my project is to offer another view of the abject body which might propel the artwork of the selected artists and my own practice as a curator to innovatively explore this conceptual scope.



——Conceptual Framework———-

The first clue to understand how I have brought together this project and how I have elaborated my ideas around it relies on its very own title. “Parallel Connection”[5] is a description that I have borrowed from physics, I used these two words in my project as a metaphor, when I started reading Gilles Deleuze’s and Julia Kristeva’s work among other post-structuralism thinkers. I noticed that they were recurrently making comparisons and connections to different practices that were usually excluded from the art debates. For instance, thanks to their contributions, we can now think about the dichotomy and the rupture with traditional Dualism as one of the many lines of creative production. As a result, polarising thoughts in two extremes (positive and negative) becomes irrelevant because those parts of the dualisms are not equivalent. Nowadays the theory of chaos and contradiction has been introduced into our art discussions and art projects involved in scientific arenas are broadly recognised.

Having this as a standpoint, the parallel connection that I have done consists   basically of establishing a bridge of communication between the artist’s practice and my own research. Although the artists have been working in different conceptual frameworks, I have found similar responses in their artworks especially when they have to deal with specific creative needs.

That is why I have chosen the abject body as a concept to investigate in order to integrate all the ideas that I have collected during my research into a particular conceptual framework. Julia Kristeva’s study of the abject examines horror, marginalization and castration. These topics bring together the main fears, sensations and emotions that have been understood as negative impulses. As Haraway has suggested “people should undermine these hierarchies by actively exploring and mobilizing the blurring of borders, instead of giving to these images the traditional cultural constructions”; I agree with her postulate, and I share her inconformity towards these positions about the difference of the body and its abject condition, because this is reminiscent of tradition rather than a new way to emphasise structures, logic and procedures within those hierarchies.

It is for this reason that I believe that Post-Structuralism is an active territory of creative production. Kristeva, as one of the principal authors of this movement has proposed that those binary oppositions or identities are natural distinctions.

She has argued that the abject body has the quality of being opposed to a proper and definable speaking object. “The non-object, the abject as neither subject, nor object: Not me. Not that. But not nothing, either. A “something” that I do not recognize as a thing –a significantly something- situated outside the symbolic order”[6]. In this framework the non-object to redefine will be the body itself and its relationship, between both its forms of presentation and exhibition in the specific context of contemporary art practices.

The point of convergence between my curatorial postulate and the references that I have selected might be summarized like this: Theories such as the Cyborg Manifesto, the New Flesh and the Abject Body- all of them have in common- a vision of the body in a confusing interface. In David Cronenberg’s films, the human flesh fuses with technological devices causing mutations, such as when the television screen in Videodrome (1983) becomes a third eye which rather than projecting images invites the protagonist to be part of its circuits. Human flesh, wires and recordings integrated in a new body -which can be recognised no longer as human.

As I have mentioned before, the concept of the cyborg has been a model to construct and elaborate my ideas. The cyborg is a “being”, with both biological and artificial parts (electronic, mechanical or robotic).

Therefore, I consider that this concept can go beyond its origin and the related science fiction narratives, due to it necessarily being human, but also because as a project, it integrates different parts. I have come to the realization that when I think of my curated exhibition, I would like to call it a cyborg as well.

I have collected more than video installation, films and video performances. I have gathered behaviours. Behind these pieces lies a sense of mutation. The abject body concept operates in these projects as an extension.

For instance, Laura Clarke and James Unsworth have been producing prints in a vary range of techniques such as etching, lithography and silkscreen, -their images are very well executed and the textures, colours and details present in their work are representative of qualities that allow us to perceive a visceral sensation. They have found in the production of films the possibility of materialising feelings, and are willing to transfer these into moving pictures, enhanced by the very execution of etchings[7] an endeavor that demands a lot of skill and strength. The effort and energy required to perform these methods of printmaking creates a constant interface; an interaction between the body and a mechanical object like the press.

One might say that they were propelled from the heavy machine to the light one. Somehow they were rejected, but thanks to this process, they have transferred their skills and concerns into other media.

The effects that the analogue camera gives to photography and film is something that has gained more value in the contemporary art world due to the fact that digital imaging has simulated and recreated all the old fashion qualities that film used to offer: Light, texture, perspective. However, analogue film has a special atmosphere and characteristic of its own. That is why the films of Laura Clarke have fascinated me, as she has managed to transfer into 8mm film all her imaginary process to high detailed results. The characters are amorphous hybrids whose mechanical movements give us the impression of displacement while they are performing. Their actions become an element of uncanniness.

These unusual sequences of movements: walking, crawling and bending down[8], establish a bridge between their mechanical appearance and the media that was used to create the artworks. As a fact, these kinds of films cannot be seen on a television screen, they would rather have to be presented in a space as an invasive presence, the bizarre and symbolic uncanny bodies of these films demand to be projected to a human size scale to provide the sense of a performance rather than a short-film.

As the actions performed refer to the horizontal position of the body and its relationship with the man-like animal stage, this subsequently evolved to the vertical and rational posture. She has done hybrids, in which some parts resemble mythical figures, but they are distorted projections from their original references. The body of the automaton, even the abject body that has been relegated to the depths of oblivion, appears in her installations to be contaminated with the same dehumanisation caused by globalisation.

View of the installation

The films of James Unsworth depict a chaotic and orgiastic situation where the characters get into a self destructive performance. Regarding his imagery I have found close affinity to the work done by Paul McCarthy.

“In McCarthy’s[9] Theatre of the Body, the human body is a metaphor for social conventions; McCarthy subjects his own self to multiple punishments, humiliations, mutilations and transformations. In the process he explores trauma, abuse and impermissible acts. Social taboos are challenged through the presentation of a weirdly comedic spectacle. The work and its content have proven deeply disturbing and threatening, as they challenge values and reveal underlying sinister forces.”

Unsworth manifests an interest in bodily fluids and excretions; in his drawings and videos there is continuity between grotesque humor and excess. A key concept of his artworks is the ability of the gaze to sexualize any kind of situation – this also being a strong feature of advertising media in recent years. His characters are literal extensions of desire that he has taken from the terrifying impact of the triptychs of Hieronymus Bosch in which he has found aspects ranging from perverse positions to the impossibility imposed by morality, religion and law. For this reason his imagery implies an ability to imagine the abject. The abjection operates in these compositions in the role of a pervert-curator who confronts dichotomy between categories such as prohibition, obedience and transgression. The painful alterations and the dramatic performances that Unsworth configures may be comparable to the abject truth of sexuality depicted in Sodom and Gomorrah. By comparison, the orgiastic nature of his scenes act as a metaphor for breaking society’s rules, or going beyond normal physical contexts.

Kristian de La Riva has used the fragmentation of the body as a way to exorcise his feelings of disintegration following a break-up; his animations representing the process of detachment from his former partner. After succumbing to his own internal emotions, he chose to invest all his feelings in a sadomasochist experience. In order to fulfill this purpose he performed a series of mutilations and, while simulating these actions, he filmed himself, subsequently using this footage as a reference to create animated cartoons in black and white.

The results are elaborate animations composed of lively and organic line drawings. He could transfer his destructive desires into a material form that at the same time, perform a play and form a vortex between conscious and unconscious neuroses.

De la Riva’s series of mutilations (with the use of tools) operates as an instrument of torture but at the same time it is an object the one which allows him to release his fury and anger. This initiative reminds me of the films of David Cronenberg, for instance Naked Lunch[10] in which a typewriter becomes an external part of the writer’s body that allows the protagonist to fulfill his obsessive and repetitive hallucinations. In De La Riva’s animations the multiplication of his identity has been possible because of the virtualization of his condensed desires, -one of the things that visual technology has accomplished nowadays, and that serves as an appendix. Everything is possible in the screen, -the relations between the interior and the exterior  emerge in a neutral space provided by the screen which is both a projector and spectator capable of perception.

The installation produced by Alistair Burleigh and Alise Piebalga was one of the most interesting pieces in my project, because it is a multidisciplinary artwork that integrates performance, new media and installation. Inspired by Jorge Luis Borges’ story The Immortal, the installation becomes a desperate game between a virtual consciousness and the physical body of the performer, who is trying to attain unification by re-construction of her virtual self. The virtual consciousness is presented as a fragmented voice and body by three unique self contained projection cubes that are maneuvered by the performer who reacts to the ever-prevailing fragmentation of her digital self.

The osmotic relationship between the two, creates a strange and desperate dance that is supported by the narration of the fragmented story written by Borges which acts both as a soundtrack and a recreation of the story of a man who by finding immortality only to realises that he is never one, never whole and is always fragmented.

This example of conscious adaptation applied to a new technology contributed to the expansion of my interpretations of the other artworks exposed; the impossibility of integrating the performer multiple and virtual identities created  an inevitable rejection of other projects.

Aukje Dekker’s installation uses camouflage and repetition to filter the repugnance of an abject-like action. Puking rainbows transforms the vomit’s detritus into painting. In her video-loop, nausea and vomit become a performing action. She removes the abject essence of bodily fluids, leaving just the violent convulsion as a protest against the academic context where she showed this piece for the first time. She wanted to express a sense of rejection towards the symbolic system of evaluation, while unveiling its fragile attempts to objectify the subjective content of her artwork. The awareness of a traitor-and-rebel relationship that she experienced, was an act of abjection, that turned her disturbing feelings into an installation that constitutes a mimetic gesture of dissatisfaction. She transforms everything: -the fluids in painting, the painting in light and subsequently the light in patterns.

Andres Londoño has found similarities between a performance and an event. Both unfold in real time, and incorporate any incident or accident that might happen along the way. To this respect an event may be understood as a communal act that involves more people and incorporates some kind of ritual activity. The performance relies on the sense transmitted to the audience by the performer. Combining these two notions, Londoño has made a field research based on an artwork first made by the artist Sasha Archibald in New York in 1997, who found on a US News and world report that more and more  Americans spend more money on Night clubs than on all other forms of live theater. “Performance Art for the working class”

He has translated this concern to different cities such as London and Bogotá. His first attempt to produce this project rose when he was living in London he found the exercises and routines played by these night dancers as they have a relationship with the abject act of filthy sex. Fascinated by this, and to fade those connotations he has used light and objects to refer to his practice. His interventions on abandoned walls serve as a canvas where some photos of his paintings of mold are projected. He hides the pristine figure of the character that is portraying to transfer it on the surface of the gallery walls. These portraits contained the most recognized people faces in the art world public figures such as Larry Gagosian, Nicolas Serota and Hans-Ulrich Obrist. As a result, we find decomposed portraits, which are traces between the decadence and abstracts forms that seem to be unrecognizable images.


——————— Aims and interests————

The aims and interests that I have been pursuing with this project developed in two directions. I had the narratives of each artist that was a vital detonator to the execution and display of the exhibition; they complemented my interests in ways that I could have not imagined before. A special feature that attracted me to these artists was the sort of explorations they have implemented into their practices.

I can define this behaviour as a process of interchange and conversion. Between the media they have been dealing with and the form they have used to integrate still pictures with motion images. Another relevant factor I detected was that they have consolidated an accurate link; a bridge to develop their discursive themes by means of expanding their creative procedures.

The principal medium chosen for this project was mainly video. By working with this resource, the artists are making films, video performances and specific installations on location. I have chosen this particular kind of discipline because is a virtual presentation of the themes I am dealing with.

Laura Clarke for instance, instead of objectively visualizing the rejection which is one of the key concepts related to the abjection, has replaced the fluids ejected by our bodies by using sequences of projected films in black and white. These actions (performed by the actors) give us an impression of certain unrecognizable gestures, while the traces of the fluids start appearing as a texture. In this context the video becomes an actual print, one in which the new configuration is like a series of etchings, -which links again to her former artistic practice.

At the beginning of this project I was aiming to invite the viewers to discover a different vision of abjection through the visual “products” coming from the artists. I wanted to explore the juxtaposition of different pieces in order to create and atmosphere of alteration or alterity[11].

The processes of transferring properties of one medium into another constitute the relationship that I offered to the visitors who attended my curated exhibition. When the viewers left the exhibit, I expected them to be able to explore a new reading of the artists’ practice and the relation to the concept that was mediated by my own point of view.

The projections are an accurate form of achieving this aim, as I can project the images while drawing with light on the walls of the gallery.

For this reason I consider that the video projector itself is a device that is continuously mapping a field. It is the main reason for inviting an artist who is experimenting with light mapping and performance, because I am interested in the viewer’s reaction. I was constantly thinking of how I can display artworks that are similar to others, but are apparently distant. My curatorial postulate helped me to connect these lines that initially might have been thought not to be entirely compatible.

On the other hand, the artist’s contributions towards the realization of the project were crucial.  When I chose this particular group of artists to take part in my project I selected them because they were interested in abjection as an exercise to exorcise their emotions. I share that same aspect with them.

Curating has a diverse gamma of roles; one of the most challenging ones is to act as a mediator between the artists and my own concerns. Getting into the research projects of other colleagues has helped me to display this exhibition in a more accurate form. Therefore, I implemented a variety of visual aesthetics under the same framework. This juxtaposition of artworks has generated a new interpretation while at the same time it confronts the viewers perception, guiding them to an unexpected experience in terms of what is considered to have literal meanings. In other words, the juxtaposition of different visual projects, works as a detonator. The viewer who has a conceptual load constructed by his cultural background approaches my exhibition with an already preconceived idea. But what I offer to them is actually the opportunity to re-organize their own interpretations about these themes.



The first stage of this process involved the research on strategies that curators have been using as part of a formal methodology to produce and display their exhibitions. In this phase, my project did not have form yet. I just had chosen a concept and started reading about it. My references were my previous investigations and my own work as an artist who has also been taking part in some group exhibitions and independent curatorial projects in the past. I reviewed the projects and art movements that have been directly linked to my concept. I took some curators as a reference; basically those who are working currently in the contemporary art industry scene, and whose contributions are being debated in the international scope as a theme of discussion and analysis. 

Then I started finding more about the artists and also visited different spaces and art galleries throughout London. I took notes of the artist’s names, themes and media on which they worked. I realised they could actually contribute, or make part of my project. In time, I contacted them to establish a conversation and finally negotiate the terms on how we would be developing the project. As a mediator, I passed-on the guidelines of the project to the artists involved in my curatorial research, and in this way, I dealt with each artist without interfering in their creative processes.

The third stage involved researching about the concept of the “Abject Body” and incorporating its implications in my project. I have been exploring the different connotations that this idea has generated in terms of art critique, creative projects and performance. In this part specifically, I wrote about the practice of the artists that I have invited to make my curatorial project in order to describe their attitudes. After this, I discovered that the majority of them have found in the abject treatment of the image, certain models of reaction towards the rejection that they have experimented at a determined moment of their own practice.

The fourth stage was the display and the realization of the exhibition and showcases it to the public at large.


———— Display of the Project and Feedback—————

To be in charge of the actual display of the different levels of interpretation and readings that I wanted to offer to the audience, I divided the exhibition in two parts. The first one was the projection of the films by: Laura Clark and James Unsworth, followed by the performance-installation of Alistair Burleigh in collaboration with Alise Piebalga, and complemented by Kristian de la Riva’s animations.

In the second part, Aukje Dekker’s videos were projected, followed by the projection of Andres Londoño’s painting interventions.

As a complement, and for the private view evening only I invited artist Raul Piña to do a one-time performance.

I think that the audience experienced a degree of fascination, even if the images were of strong and shocking content. I think this was because we managed to generate a vivid way of immersing the viewers and visitors. The works were exhibited facing the audience daring them to explore their own reactions. We opened at 6 p.m. and we closed at 10 p.m. We had approximately 300 visitors the night of the private view and 90 more during the rest of the week. The average of the visitors consisted of people involved in arts, all ranged between 18 to 40 years old.

The Gallery is located in Bethnal Green, and I had the opportunity to open during the first Thursday of the East End shows. I advertised my exhibition in five websites dedicated and specialized in contemporary art exhibitions. I was advised by a PR professional to promote and distribute the information of the event through all the different networks.


—————- Evaluation Comment—————-


The evaluation comment underlying after the exhibition finished, can be formulated with two questions, the first one:

Can the exhibition relate to a concept without an explicit textual reference during its display?

One of the risks that I decided to run in the evening of the first private view was the removal of the standard press release. What I was looking for with this was a direct confrontation of the audience towards the projections. There the only literal references they could have found were the films imagery and the space itself.

I provided the line up to the viewers after I saw they spent more than 15 min watching the videos instead of place the leaflets in the entrance. We then gave out a program as if they were attending a performance event. This action sounds primitive and perhaps naive, however, after the first visitors left the gallery others came back nevertheless, and to my surprise I found out that an hour later the place was overcrowded with people queuing outside to see our exhibition.

While it is true that on the downside we had the size of the venue, we did not have any problems or complaints regarding size or the area as we enquired attendees and also got voluntary feedback from the visitors. The blog had more that 713 hits in total during the month of the exhibit and even after the show closed we still receiving a significant number of hits.

I believe that one of important things that I learned from this project was coming to the realization of how important it is to promote and spread the word regarding the launch of an art project or exhibit.

The relevance of this exhibition to me also relies on its future prospects. This experience has opened me some doors to explore more related themes and has showed me how to engage an audience using other unconventional strategies. For instance, sonic art and media are not usually (or widely) recognized and will definitely be something I look forward to explore and research on in the near future, to enhance my curatorial experience.

The curating practice -as a creative process to reconfigure interpretations, is a limitless area where there is luckily much to do in terms of investigation and practice.

Second Question: Can an exhibition of installation and video art be understood as new media without using interactive systems of electronics?

New media has usually been confined to the territory of electronic devices where the projects are based on the innovative software and the amusing interaction with hardware. However, I think that an analytical revision of these concepts and practices is needed and shall be reinterpreted. Another important aspect for me was to acknowledge the visitors interests in contributing for future projects. I have received feedback encouraging me to start educational ventures and continue curating exhibitions, which preferably will combine new media with conceptual approaches beyond the technological display.




[1] Cronenberg is one of the principal originators of what is commonly known as the “New Flesh”, trend. In “Scanners” he explores how Science transforms the human body using pharmaceutical procedures on pregnant women and which side effects make them gave birth to people with powerfully intense telepathic and telekinetic abilities.

[2] Haraway, Donna (1991). “Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century”Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. New York: Routledge. p.32

[3] Deleuze Gilles, 2002. “How Do We Recognise Structuralism?” InDesertIslandsand Other Texts 1953-1974. Translation: David Lapoujade. Ed.Michael Taormina, Semiotext Foreign Agents, Los Angeles and New York. 2004. p.170-192.

[4] Craig Edward, Ed. 1998. Routledge Encyclopaedia of Philosophy. Vol.7 (Nihilism to Quantum mechanics) London and New York: Routledge.p.597.

[5] Williams Tim, The Circuit Designer’s Companion, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005

Components of an electrical circuit or electronic circuit can be connected in many different ways. The two simplest of these are called series and parallel and occur very frequently. Components connected in series are connected along a single path, so the same current flows through all of the components. Components connected in parallel are connected so the same voltage is applied to each component.

Under a parallel connection, all input and output terminals of two or more connected components are connected in such a way so as to create further branching of the electrical circuit.

Article Source:

[6] Kristeva, Julia, Powers of Horror: an essay on abjection, Columbia University Press: New York, USA, 1982, p.1 – 3

[7] Etching is the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal (the original process—in modern manufacturing other chemicals may be used on other types of material). As an intaglio method of printmaking it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains widely used today. Clarke has been exploring the possibilities of photo etching and film to display serial pieces in a site-specific installation. The.

[8] The hybrid imagery that Laura Clarke uses in her works evokes Eadweard Muybridge’s sequential studies of the movements of the body, but she has replaced the dancers and choreographers of Muybridge by hybrids, who resemble figures from the ancient Greek myths.

[9] Philips Lisa, Paul McCarthy, 2000, Paul McCarthy’s Theather of the body, p.2-3, Hatje Cantz Publishers,New York.

[10] William Lee is an exterminator who finds that his wife Joan is stealing his insecticide for recreational purposes. When Lee is arrested by the police, he believes he is hallucinating because of bug powder exposure. He believes he is a secret agent whose controller (a giant bug) assigns him the mission of killing his wife Joan, who is an agent of an organization called Interzone Incorporated. Dismissing the bug and its instructions, Lee returns home to find Joan sleeping with Hank one of his writer friends. Shortly afterwards, he shoots her while performing a William Tell routine.

[11] Critchley Simon, The ethics of deconstruction: Derrida and Lévinas, 1960 oxford; Blackwell 1992.


Alterity is a philosophical term meaning “otherness”, strictly being in the sense of the other of two (Latin alter). In the phenomenological tradition it is usually understood as the entity in contrast to which an identity is constructed, and it implies the ability to distinguish between-self and not-self, and consequently to assume the existence of an alternative viewpoint. The concept was established by Emmanuel Lévinas in a series of essays, collected under the title Alterity and Transcendence (1970-1999).